The Display Menu

This menu controls how the image is displayed on your screen. None of these commands actually modify the image itself, only how it is presented.

Dithering Commands

Returns the displayed image to its 'raw' state (where each pixel in the displayed image is as close as possible to the corresponding pixel in the internal image). In short, it turns off any dithering or smoothing. This command is normally disabled, and is only enabled after you have issued a Dithered or Smooth command.
Regenerates the displayed image by dithering with the available colors in an attempt to approximate the original image. This has a useful effect only if the color allocation code failed to get all the colors it wanted. If it did get all the desired colors, the Dither command will just generate the same display image as the Raw command. On the other hand, if you didn't get all the desired colors, the Dither command will try to approximate the missing colors by dithering with the colors that were obtained, which can help eliminate visible banding, and such. Note: If you are running xv on a 1-bit display the Dither command will be disabled, as the image will always be dithered for display.
Smoothes out distortion caused by integer round-off when an image is expanded or shrunk. This is generally a desirable effect, however it can be fairly time-consuming on large images, so by default it is not done automatically. See "Modifying xv Behavior" for more details. Note that Smooth only has a useful effect if the image has been resized. If the image is being displayed at its normal 1:1 expansion ratio, then the Smooth command will not have a useful effect.

Note: if you are currently in '24-bit mode' (see "The 24/8 Bit Menu" for more info), the Dithered command is disabled, Raw displays the image (dithered on an 8-bit display), and Smooth displays a smoothed version of the image (dithered on an 8-bit display).

Color Allocation Commands

When turned on, forces xv to use read/write color cells (ignored and disabled in Use Std. Colormap mode, below).. Normally, xv allocates read-only color cells, which allows it to share colors with other programs. If you use read/write color cells, no other program can use the colormap entries that xv is using, and vice-versa. The major advantage is that using read/write color cells allows the Apply function in the xv color editor window to operate much faster, and allows the Auto-Apply while dragging feature to be used at all. Also note that this command is only enabled if you are running xv on a PseudoColor display. See "Color Allocation in xv" for more information on display modes.
xv's normal color allocation mode. For any given picture, xv figures out what colors should be allocated, and tries to allocate them (read-only, or read/write, as determined by the Read/Write Colors setting). If any color allocation fails, xv will try a few other tricks, and generally just map the remaining colors (the ones it didn't get) into the closest colors that it did get.
When Perfect Colors is turned on, xv proceeds as in the Normal Colors case. If any color allocation request fails, all colors are freed, and xv creates itself a private colormap, and tries all over again. It is assumed that having a private colormap will provide more colors than allocating out of the already partially-used system default colormap.
Like Perfect Colors , but it doesn't even try to allocate out of the system colormap. Instead, it starts off by creating its own colormap, and allocating from there. Slightly faster than Perfect Colors mode. Also useful, as certain X servers (AIX 3.1 running on an RS6000, for instance) never report an allocation error for read-only color cells. They just return the closest color found in the system colormap. Generally nice behavior, but it prevents Perfect Colors mode from ever allocating a colormap...
An entirely different color allocation mode. Instead of picking the (generally unique) colors that each image requires, this mode forces all images to be displayed (dithered) using the same set of (standard) colors. The downside is that the images don't look as nice as they do in the other modes. The upside is that you can display many images simultaneously (by running more than one copy of xv) without instantly running out of colors. The setting of Read/Write Colors is ignored while in this mode. Also, this mode is the only one available when you are displaying images in 24-bit mode.

Root Display Modes

While xv normally displays an image in its own window, it is also possible for it to display images on the root window (a.k.a. 'the desktop'). You would normally use this feature from the command- line, as part of some sort of X startup script, to put up a background pattern or image of your choice. See "Root Window Options" for further information on the relevant command-line options.

You can also specify root display options interactively, while the program is running, by using the Root menu, as shown.

One note regarding root display: it is not possible for xv to receive button presses or keyboard presses in the root window. As such, there are several functions that cannot be used while in a 'root' mode, such as pixel tracking, image editing, pan and zoom operations, etc. If you want to do such things, you'll have to temporarily return to 'window' mode, and return to 'root' mode when you're finished. Also, when you are in a 'root' mode, you will not be able to get rid of the xv controls window. At best you can iconify it (using your window manager). There's a good reason for this. If you could get rid of the window, there would be no way to ever get it back (since it won't see keypresses or mouse clicks in the root window).

One other note: If you are running xv on certain 24-bit displays, where the 'default' visual type is an 8-bit PseudoColor, but xv in its cleverness has decided to use a 24-bit TrueColor mode, you will not be able to switch the display to a root mode. This is because xv requires the visual used in the 'window' mode to be the same as the visual used for the 'root' modes. In the case of these types of displays, it is not possible to put a 24-bit TrueColor image on the root window. You can get this to work by using the ' -visual default ' command-line option, which will force xv to use the 'default' visual for both the 'window' and 'root' modes.

Also note: This is only necessary to get this menu to work on such displays. If you use the '-root' or '-rmode' command-line options, xv will automatically use patented "DoTheRightThing" technology...

Displays the image in a window. If you were previously in a 'root' mode, the root window will also be cleared.
The image is displayed in the root window. One image is displayed aligned with the top-left corner of the screen. The image is then duplicated towards the bottom and right edges of the screen, as many times as necessary to fill the screen.
Similar to Root: Tiled, except that the image is first shrunk so that its width and height are integer divisors of the screen's width and height. This keeps the images along the bottom and right edges of the screen from being 'chopped-off'.

Note: using any of the 'resizing' commands (such as Normal, Double Size, etc.) will lose the 'integer'-ness of the image, and you'll have to re-select this mode to 'integer-ify' the image again.

Tiles the original image with versions that have been horizontally flipped, vertically flipped, and both horizontally and vertically flipped. This gets rid of the sharp dividing lines where tiled images meet. The effect is quite interesting.
Like Root: Mirrored, but also does the integer-ization described under the Root: Integer Tiled entry.
Like Root: Tiled, but it positions the images so that one of them is centered on the screen, and the rest are tiled off in all directions. Visually pleasing without the image size distortion associated with Root: Integer Tiled .
Displays a single image centered in the root window, surrounded by black, or your choice of any other solid color. (See "Modifying xv Behavior " for more information.)
Displays a single image centered in the root window, surrounded by a black and white 'warp' pattern, which produces some mildly visually pleasing Moir effects. The colors can also be chosen by the user. (See "Modifying xv Behavior" for details.)
Displays a single image centered in the root window, surrounded by a black and white 'brick' pattern. Again, the colors can be set by the user.
Tiles images on the root window such that the images are symmetric around the horizontal and vertical center lines of the screen.
Like the Root: symmetrical tiled mode, but the images are also mirrored.

Note: The three 'centered' modes (Root: Centered , Root: Centered, Warp, and Root: Centered, Brick, but not Root: Center Tiled) require the creation of a Pixmap the size of the screen. This can be a fairly large request for resources, and will fail on a color X terminal with insufficient memory. They can also require the transmission of considerably more data than the other 'root' modes. If you're on a brain-damaged X terminal hanging off a slow network, you should probably go somewhere else. Barring that, you should certainly avoid the 'centered' modes.

Also note: If you quit xv while displaying an image on the root window, the image will remain in the root window, and the colors used by the image will remain allocated. This is generally regarded as correct behavior. If you decide you want to get rid of the root image to free up resources, or simply because you're sick of seeing it, the quickest route is to run 'xv -clear', which will clear the root window, release any allocated colors, and exit. Alternately, xsetroot or any other X program that puts things in the root window should be able to do the trick as well.