The patterns in the input are written using an extended set of regular expressions. These are:
flexcannot match correctly; see notes in the Deficiencies / Bugs section below regarding "dangerous trailing context".)
Note that inside of a character class, all regular expression operators lose their special meaning except escape ('\') and the character class operators, '-', ']', and, at the beginning of the class, '^'.
The regular expressions listed above are grouped according to precedence, from highest precedence at the top to lowest at the bottom. Those grouped together have equal precedence. For example,
is the same as
since the '*' operator has higher precedence than concatenation, and concatenation higher than alternation ('|'). This pattern therefore matches either the string "foo" or the string "ba" followed by zero-or-more r's. To match "foo" or zero-or-more "bar"'s, use:
and to match zero-or-more "foo"'s-or-"bar"'s:
In addition to characters and ranges of characters, character classes can also contain character class expressions. These are expressions enclosed inside `[': and `:'] delimiters (which themselves must appear between the '[' and ']' of the character class; other elements may occur inside the character class, too). The valid expressions are:
[:alnum:] [:alpha:] [:blank:] [:cntrl:] [:digit:] [:graph:] [:lower:] [:print:] [:punct:] [:space:] [:upper:] [:xdigit:]
These expressions all designate a set of characters equivalent to the corresponding standard C `isXXX' function. For example, `[:alnum:]' designates those characters for which `isalnum()' returns true - i.e., any alphabetic or numeric. Some systems don't provide `isblank()', so flex defines `[:blank:]' as a blank or a tab.
For example, the following character classes are all equivalent:
[[:alnum:]] [[:alpha:][:digit:] [[:alpha:]0-9] [a-zA-Z0-9]
If your scanner is case-insensitive (the `-i' flag), then `[:upper:]' and `[:lower:]' are equivalent to `[:alpha:]'.
Some notes on patterns:
foo/bar$ <sc1>foo<sc2>barNote that the first of these, can be written "foo/bar\n". The following will result in '$' or '^' being treated as a normal character:
foo|(bar$) foo|^barIf what's wanted is a "foo" or a bar-followed-by-a-newline, the following could be used (the special '|' action is explained below):
foo | bar$ /* action goes here */A similar trick will work for matching a foo or a bar-at-the-beginning-of-a-line.
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