Network Working Group R. Lasher Request For Comments: 1807 Stanford Obsoletes: 1357 D. Cohen Category: Informational Myricom June 1995
This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
This RFC defines a format for bibliographic records describing technical reports. This format is used by the Cornell University Dienst protocol and the Stanford University SIFT system. The original RFC (RFC 1357) was written by D. Cohen, ISI, July 1992. This is a revision of RFC 1357. New fields include handle, other_access, keyword, and withdraw.
Many universities and other R&D organizations routinely announce new technical reports by mailing (via the postal services) the bibliographic records of these reports.
These mailings have non-trivial cost and delay. In addition, their recipients cannot conveniently file them, electronically, for later retrieval and searches.
Publishing organizations that wish to use e-mail or file transfer to obtain these announcements can do so by using the following format.
Organizations may automate to any degree (or not at all) both the creation of these records (about their own publications) and the handling of the records received from other organizations.
This format is designed to be simple, for people and for machines, to be easy to read ("human readable") and create without any special programs.
This RFC defines the format of bibliographic records, not how to process them.
This format is a "tagged" format with self-explaining alphabetic tags. It should be possible to prepare and to read bibliographic records using any text editor, without any special programs.
This RFC includes the CR-CATEGORY, a field useful for Computer Science publications. It is expected that similar fields will be added for other domains.
This format, as described in RFC 1357, was implemented as part of the Dienst system and has been in use by the five ARPA-funded computer science institutions to exchange bibliographic records (Cornell, SU, UC, MIT, and CMU). Programs have been written to map between this RFC and structured USMARC (format developed at the Library of Congress) cataloging records, also from USMARC to the RFC.
The focus of this ARPA-funded research has been into many aspects of digital libraries including searching and accessing techniques that do not necessarily use bibliographic records (for example, natural language processing, automatic and full-text indexing). However, the continued use of bibliographic records is expected to remain an important part of the library system environment of the future and its use is an important link between the physical world of scientific works and the on-line world of digital objects. The format described in this paper allows a link between these two worlds to be created.
This format was developed with considerable help and involvement of Computer Science and Library personnel from several organizations, including Carnegie Mellon University, Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), Cornell University, University of Southern California/Information Sciences Institute (ISI), Meridian (now called DynCorp), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, and the University of California. Key contributions were provided by Jerry Saltzer of MIT, and Larry Lannom of DynCorp. The initial draft was prepared by Danny Cohen and Larry Miller of ISI. The revision was done by Rebecca Lasher from Stanford with assistance from the CS-TR participants.
This RFC does not place any limitations on the dissemination of the bibliographic records. If there are limitations on the dissemination of the publication, it should be protected by some means such as passwords. This RFC does not address this protection.
The use of this format is encouraged. There are no limitations on its use.
The various fields should follow the format described below.
<M> means Mandatory; a record without it is invalid. <O> means Optional.
The tags (aka Field-IDs) are shown in upper case.
<M> BIB-VERSION of this bibliographic records format <M> ID <M> ENTRY date <O> ORGANIZATION <O> TITLE <O> TYPE <O> REVISION <O> WITHDRAW <O> AUTHOR <O> CORP-AUTHOR <O> CONTACT for the author(s) <O> DATE of publication <O> PAGES count <O> COPYRIGHT, permissions and disclaimers <O> HANDLE <O> OTHER_ACCESS <O> RETRIEVAL <O> KEYWORD <O> CR-CATEGORY <O> PERIOD <O> SERIES <O> MONITORING organization(s) <O> FUNDING organization(s) <O> CONTRACT number(s) <O> GRANT number(s) <O> LANGUAGE name <O> NOTES <O> ABSTRACT <M> END
* Keep It Simple. * One bibliographic record for each publication, where a "publication" is whatever the publishing institution defines as such. * A record contains several fields. * Each field starts with its tag (aka the field-ID) which is a reserved identifier (containing no separators) at the beginning of a new line with or without spaces before it), followed by two colons ("::"), followed by the field data. * Continuation lines: Lines are limited to 79 characters. When needed, fields may continue over several lines, with an implied space in between. In order to simplify the use no special marking is used to indicate continuation line. Hence, fields are terminated by a line that starts (apart from white space) with a word followed by two colons. Except for the "END::" that is terminated by the end of line.) For improved human readability it is suggested to start continuation lines with some spaces. * Several fields are mandatory and must appear in the record. All fields (unless specifically not permitted to) may be in any order and may be repeated as needed (e.g., the AUTHOR field). The order of the repeated fields is always preserved. * Only printable ASCII characters are to be used. The permissible characters are ASCII codes 040 (Space) through 176(~) and line breaks which are \012 (LF) or \012\015 (CRLF). Empty lines indicate paragraph break. \009 (tab) must be replaced by spaces. This specifically forbids tabs, null characters, DEL, backspaces, etc. (i.e., if used, the record is invalid.)
However full 8 bit ASCII may be used. WARNING: some
electronic mailers cannot handle 8 bit ASCII and these
records may need to be transported via other mechanisms.
Throughout this document the word "publisher" means the publishing organization of a report (e.g., a university or a department thereof), not necessarily an organization authorized to issue ISBN numbers.
<Finnegan@cs.ouks.edu> AUTHOR:: Pooh, Winnie The CONTACT:: 100 Aker Wood DATE:: December 1991 PAGES:: 48 COPYRIGHT:: Copyright for the report (c) 1991, by J. A. Finnegan. All rights reserved. Permission is granted for any academic use of the report. HANDLE:: hdl:oceanview.electr/CS-TR-91-123
For reference, the above example has about 1,689 characters (184 words) including about 249 characters (36 words) in the abstract.
The term "Open Ended Format" in the following means arbitrary text.
In the following double-quotes indicate complete strings. They are included only for grouping and are not expected to be used in the actual records.
The BIB-VERSION, ID, ENTRY, and END field must appear as the first, second, third, and last fields, and may not be repeated in the record. All other fields may be repeated as needed.
BIB-VERSIONs that start with the letter X (case
independent) are considered experimental. Bib-records sent with such a BIB-VERSION should NOT be incorporated in the permanent database of the recipient.
Using this version of this format, this field is always:
Format: BIB-VERSION:: CS-TR-v2.1
The organization symbols "DUMMY" and "TEST" (case
independent) are reserved for test records that should NOT be incorporated in the permanent database of the
Format: ID:: <publisher-ID>//<free-text>
Example: ID:: OUKS//CS-TR-91-123
**** See the note at the end regarding the **** **** controlled symbols of the publishers *****
The format for ENTRY date is "Month Day, Year". The month must be alphabetic (spelled out). The "Day" is a 1- or 2-digit number. The "Year" is a 4-digit number.
Format: ENTRY:: <date>
Example: ENTRY:: January 15, 1992
Avoid acronyms because there are many common acronyms,
such as ISI and USC. Please provide it in ascending
order, such as "X University, Y Department" (not "Y
Department, X University").
Format: ORGANIZATION:: <free-text> Example: ORGANIZATION:: Stanford University, Department of Computer Science
Format: TITLE:: <free-text>
Example: TITLE:: The Computerization of Oceanview with High Speed Fiber Optics Communication
Format: TYPE:: <free-text>
Example: TYPE:: Technical Report
to replace it. Revision information consists of a date
and/or followed by a semicolon and by text in an open
ended format. The revised bibliographic record should
contain a complete record for the publication, not just a
list of changes to the old record. If revision is
omitted, the record is assumed to be a new record and not a revision. If the revision date is specified as 0, this is assumed to be January 1, 1900 (the previous RFC, used revision data of 0, 1, 2, 3, etc. this specification is for programs that might process records from RFC1357).
The text before the semicolon in this field is a date of
the form month day, year. Any record with a more recent
revision date replaces completely any record with an
earlier revision date (supplied either explicitly or by
default). Use the text to describe the revision.
Reasons to send out a revised record include an error in the original, or change in the access information.
Format: REVISION:: January 1, 1995; <free-text>
Example: REVISION:: January 1, 1995; FTP information added
A withdraw record has all of the mandatory fields plus the
withdraw field and a mandatory revision field.
The Withdraw field should indicate the reason for the withdraw in free text.
Example for withdrawing a bibliographic record::
ID:: OUKS//CS-TR-91-123 ENTRY:: January 21, 1995 ORGANIZATION:: Oceanview University, Kansas, Computer Science TITLE:: The Computerization of Oceanview with High Speed Fiber Optics Communication REVISION:: January 21, 1995 WITHDRAW:: Withdrawn, found to be irrelevant END:: OUKS//CS-TR-91-123
If the report was not authored by a person (e.g., it was authored by a committee or a panel) use CORP-AUTHOR (see below) instead of AUTHOR.
Multiple authors are entered by using multiple lines, each in the form of "AUTHOR:: <free-text>".
The system preserves the order of the authors.
Format: AUTHOR:: <free-text>
Example: AUTHOR:: Finnegan, James A.
AUTHOR:: Pooh, Winnie The
AUTHOR:: Lastname, Firstname (ed.)
In entering the corporate name please omit initial "the" or "a". If it is really part of the name, please invert it.
Format: CORP-AUTHOR:: <free-text>
Example: CORP-AUTHOR:: Committee on long-range computing
A CONTACT field for each author should be provided,
separately, or for all the AUTHOR fields.
E-mail addresses should always be in "pointy brackets" (as in the example below).
Format: CONTACT:: <free-text>
Example: CONTACT:: Prof. J. A. Finnegan, CS Dept,
Oceanview Univ., Oceanview, Kansas, 54321 Tel: 913-456-7890 <Finnegan@cs.ouks.edu>
Format: DATE:: <date>
Example: DATE:: January 1992
Example: DATE:: January 15, 1992
Format: PAGES:: <number>
Example: PAGES:: 48
Format: COPYRIGHT:: <free-text>
Example: COPYRIGHT:: Copyright for the report (c) 1991,
by J. A. Finnegan. All rights
Permission is granted for any academic use of the report.
Handles are used to identify digital objects stored within
a digital library. If the technical report is available in
electronic form, the Handle MUST be supplied in the
Format is "HANDLE:: hdl:<naming authority>/string
of characters". The string of characters can be the report number of the technical report as assigned by the publisher. For more information on handles and handle servers see the CNRI WEB page at
**** NOTE: White space in HANDLE due to line wrap is ignored.
Format: HANDLE:: hdl:<naming authority>/string of
Example: HANDLE:: hdl:oceanview.electr/CS-TR-91-123
Only one URL or URN per occurrence of the field.
URL and URN information is available in the internet drafts from the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). The most recent drafts can be found on the CNRI WEB page at http://www.cnri.reston.va.us.
Format: OTHER_ACCESS:: URL:<URL>
Example: OTHER_ACCESS:: URL:http://elib.stanford.edu/Docume nt/STANFORD.CS:CS-TN-94-1
Example: OTHER_ACCESS:: URL:ftp://JUPITER.CS.OUKS.EDU/PUBS/ computerization.txt.
When the URN standard is finalized naming authorities will be registered and URNs will be viable unique identifiers. Until then this is a place holder. For the latest URN drafts see CNRI WEB page at http://www.cnri.reston.va.us.
No limitations are placed on the dissemination of the bibliographic records. If there are limitations on the dissemination of the publication, it should be protected by some means such as passwords. This format does not address this protection.
Format: RETRIEVAL:: <free-text>
RETRIEVAL:: for full text with color pictures
send a self-addressed stamped envelope to
Prof. J.A. Finnegan, CS Dept,
Oceanview University, Oceanview, KS 54321
Format: KEYWORD:: <free-text>
Example: KEYWORD:: Scientific Communication
KEYWORD:: Communication Theory
Every year, the January issue of CR has the full list of these categories, with a detailed discussion of the CR Classification System, and a full index. Typically the full index appears in every January issue, and the top two levels in every issue.
Format: CR-CATEGORY:: <free-text>
Example: CR-CATEGORY:: D.1
Example: CR-CATEGORY:: B.3 Hardware, Memory Structures
Format: PERIOD:: <date> to <date>
Example: PERIOD:: January 1990 to March 1990
Format: SERIES:: <free-text>
Example: SERIES:: Communication
Format: FUNDING:: <free-text>
Example: FUNDING:: ARPA
Format: MONITORING:: <free-text> Example: MONITORING:: ONR
Format: CONTRACT:: <free-text>
Example: CONTRACT:: MMA-90-23-456
Format: GRANT:: <free-text>
Example: GRANT:: NASA-91-2345
Please include the Abstract in English, if possible.
If the language is not specified, English is assumed.
Format: LANGUAGE:: <free-text>
Example: LANGUAGE:: English
Example: LANGUAGE:: French
Format: NOTES:: <free-text>
Example: NOTES:: This report is the full version of the paper with the same title in IEEE Trans ASSP Dec 1976
The ABSTRACT is expected to be used for subject searching
since titles are not enough. Even if the report is not in
English, an English ABSTRACT is preferable. If no formal
abstract appears on document, the producers of the
bibliographic records are encouraged to use pieces of the introduction, first paragraph, etc.
Format: ABSTRACT:: xxxx .............. xxxxxxxx
xxxx .............. xxxxxxxx
xxxx .............. xxxxxxxx
xxxx .............. xxxxxxxx
Format: END:: XXX//YYY
Example: END:: OUKS//CS-TR-91-123
>>>>>>> [END OF FORMAT DEFINITION] <<<<<<<
In order to avoid conflicts among the symbols of the publishing organizations (the XXX part of the "ID:: XXX//YYY") it is suggested that the various organizations that publish reports (such as universities, departments, and laboratories) register their
<publisher-ID> symbols and names, in a way similar to the registration of other key parameters and names in the Internet.
Rebecca Lasher (RLASHER@Forsythe.stanford.edu), of Stanford working with CNRI has agreed to coordinate this registration with the IANA for the publishers of Computer Science technical reports. It is suggested that before using this format the publishing organizations would coordinate with her (by e-mail) their symbols and the names of their organizations.
In order to help automated handling of the received bibliographic records, it is expected that the producers of bibliographic records will always use the same name, exactly, in the ORGANIZATION field.
Security issues are not discussed in this memo.
This work was supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency under Grant No. MDA-972-92-J-1029 with the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI). Its content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government or CNRI, and no official endorsement should be inferred.
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