Network Working Group J. Moy Request for Comments: 1585 Proteon, Inc. Category: Informational March 1994
This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
This memo documents how the MOSPF protocol satisfies the requirements imposed on Internet routing protocols by "Internet Engineering Task Force internet routing protocol standardization criteria" ([RFC 1264]).
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MOSPF is an enhancement of OSPF V2, enabling the routing of IP multicast datagrams. OSPF is a link-state (unicast) routing protocol, providing a database describing the Autonomous System's topology. IP multicast is an extension of LAN multicasting to a TCP/IP Internet. IP Multicast permits an IP host to send a single datagram (called an IP multicast datagram) that will be delivered to multiple destinations. IP multicast datagrams are identified as those packets whose destinations are class D IP addresses (i.e., addresses whose first byte lies in the range 224-239 inclusive). Each class D address defines a multicast group.
The extensions required of an IP host to participate in IP multicasting are specified in "Host extensions for IP multicasting" ([RFC 1112]). That document defines a protocol, the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), that enables hosts to dynamically join and leave multicast groups.
MOSPF routers use the IGMP protocol to monitor multicast group membership on local LANs through the sending of IGMP Host Membership Queries and the reception of IGMP Host Membership Reports. A MOSPF router then distributes this group location information throughout the routing domain by flooding a new type of OSPF link state advertisement, the group-membership-LSA (type 6). This in turn enables the MOSPF routers to most efficiently forward a multicast
datagram to its multiple destinations: each router calculates the path of the multicast datagram as a shortest-path tree whose root is the datagram source, and whose terminal branches are LANs containing group members.
A separate tree is built for each [source network, multicast destination] combination. To ease the computational demand on the routers, these trees are built "on demand", i.e., the first time a datagram having a particular combination of source network and multicast destination is received. The results of these "on demand" tree calculations are then cached for later use by subsequent matching datagrams.
MOSPF is meant to be used internal to a single Autonomous System. When supporting IP multicast over the entire Internet, MOSPF would have to be used in concert with an inter-AS multicast routing protocol (something like DVMRP would work).
The MOSPF protocol is based on the work of Steve Deering in [Deering]. The MOSPF specification is documented in [MOSPF].
As a multicast datagram is forwarded along its shortest-path tree, the datagram is delivered to each member of the destination multicast group. In MOSPF, the forwarding of the multicast datagram has the following properties:
of being rooted at the calculating router (as is done in the unicast case). Tie-breakers have been defined to ensure that, when several equal-cost paths exist, all routers agree on which single path to use. As a result, there is a single path between the datagram's source and any particular destination group member. This means that, unlike OSPF's treatment of regular (unicast) IP data traffic, there is no provision for equal-cost multipath.
This section lists, in no particular order, the other miscellaneous features that the MOSPF protocol supports:
MBONE. However, it is assumed that, since MOSPF is an intra-AS protocol, multicast can be turned on in enough of the Autonomous System's routers to achieve the required connectivity without resorting to tunneling. The more centralized control that exists in most Autonomous Systems, when compared to the Internet as a whole, should make this possible.
All MOSPF protocol packet exchanges (excluding IGMP) are specified by the base OSPF protocol, and as such are authenticated. For a discussion of OSPF's authentication mechanism, see Appendix D of [OSPF].
Management support for MOSPF has been added to the base OSPF V2 MIB [OSPF MIB]. These additions consist of the ability to read and write the configuration parameters specified in Section B of [MOSPF], together with the ability to dump the new group-membership-LSAs.
There is currently one MOSPF implementation, written by Proteon, Inc. It was released for general use in April 1992. It is a full MOSPF implementation, with the exception of TOS-based multicast routing. It also does not contain an inter-AS multicast routing protocol.
The multicast applications included with the Proteon MOSPF implementation include: a multicast pinger, console commands so that the router itself can join and leave multicast groups (and so respond to multicast pings), and the ability to send SNMP traps to a
multicast address. Proteon is also using IP multicast to support the tunneling of other protocols over IP. For example, source route bridging is tunneled over a MOSPF domain, using one IP multicast address for explorer frames and mapping the segment/bridge found in a specifically-routed frame's RIF field to other IP multicast addresses. This last application has proved popular, since it provides a lightweight transport that is resistant to reordering.
The Proteon MOSPF implementation is currently running in
approximately a dozen sites, each site consisting of 10-20 routers.
Table 1 gives a comparison between the code size of Proteon's base OSPF implementation and its MOSPF implementation. Two dimensions of
lines of C bytes of 68020 object code ___________________________________________________ OSPF base 11,693 63,160 MOSPF 15,247 81,956
Table 1: Comparison of OSPF and MOSPF code sizes
size are indicated: lines of C (comments and blanks included), and bytes of 68020 object code. In both cases, the multicast extensions to OSPF have engendered a 30% size increase.
Note that in these sizes, the code used to configure and monitor the implementation has been included. Also, in the MOSPF code size figure, the IGMP implementation has been included.
Figure 1 shows the topology that was used for the initial debugging of Proteon's MOSPF implementation. It consists of seven MOSPF routers, interconnected by ethernets, token rings, FDDIs and serial lines. The applications used to test the routing were multicast ping and the sending of traps to a multicast address (the box labeled "NAZ" was a network analyzer that was occasionally sending IGMP Host Membership Reports and then continuously receiving multicast SNMP traps). The "vat" application was also used on workstations (without running the DVMRP "mrouted" daemon; see "Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol", [RFC 1075]) which were multicasting packet voice across the MOSPF domain.
The MOSPF features tested in this setup were:
+---+ +-------------------------------|RT1| | +---+ | +---------+ | | | | | +---+ +---+ +---+ | | |RT5|---------|RT2| |NAZ| | | +---+ +----+---+ +---+ | | | | | | | | +------------------------+ | | | + | | | | | | | | +---+ | +------------+ + | |--|RT7| | | | | | +---+ | +---+ | +---+ | | |RT4|--------|-----------|RT3|----| | +---+ | +---+ | | | | | + + | | | +---+ | +---------------|-----------|RT6|------------| | +---+ | + +
Figure 1: Initial MOSPF test setup
Due to the commercial tunneling applications developed by Proteon that use IP multicast, MOSPF has been deployed in a number of operational but non-Internet-connected sites. MOSPF has been also deployed in some Internet-connected sites (e.g., OARnet) for testing purposes. The desire of these sites is to use MOSPF to attach to the "mbone". However, an implementation of both MOSPF and DVMRP in the same box is needed; without this one way communication has been achieved (sort of like lecture mode in vat) by configuring multicast static routes in the MOSPF implementation. The problem is that there is no current way to inject the MOSPF source information into DVMRP.
The MOSPF features that have not yet been tested are:
MOSPF uses the Dijkstra algorithm to calculate the path of a
multicast datagram through any given OSPF area. This calculation
encompasses all the transit nodes (routers and networks) in the area;
its cost scales as O(N*log(N)) where N is the number of transit nodes
(same as the cost of the OSPF unicast intra-area routing
calculation). This is the cost of a single path calculation; however, MOSPF calculates a separate path for each [source network, multicast destination, TOS] tuple. This is potentially a lot of Dijkstra calculations.
MOSPF proposes to deal with this calculation burden by calculating datagram paths in an "on demand" fashion. That is, the path is calculated only when receiving the first datagram in a stream. After the calculation, the results are cached for use by later matching datagrams. This on demand calculation alleviates the cost of the routing calculations in two ways: 1) It spreads the routing calculations out over time and 2) the router does fewer calculations, since it does not even calculate the paths of datagrams whose path will not even touch the router.
Cache entries need never be timed out, although they are removed on topological changes. If an implementation chooses to limit the amount of memory consumed by the cache, probably by removing selected entries, care must be taken to ensure that cache thrashing does not occur.
The effectiveness of this "on demand" calculation will need to be proven over time, as multicast usage and traffic patterns become more evident.
As a simple example, suppose an OSPF area consists of 200 routers. Suppose each router represents a site, and each site is participating simultaneously with three other local sites (inside the area) in a video conference. This gives 200/4 = 50 groups, and 200 separate datagram trees. Assuming each datagram tree goes through every router (which probably won't be true), each router will be doing 200 Dijkstras initially (and on internal topology changes). The time to run a 200 node Dijkstra on a 10 mips processor was estimated to be 15 milliseconds in "OSPF protocol analysis" ([RFC 1245]). So if all 200 Dijkstras need to be done at once, it will take 3 seconds total on a 10 mips processor. In contrast, assuming each video stream is 64Kb/sec, the routers will constantly forward 12Mb/sec of application data (the cost of this soon dwarfing the cost of the Dijkstras).
In this example there are also 200 group-membership-LSAs in the area; since each group membership-LSA is around 64 bytes, this adds 64*200 = 12K bytes to the OSPF link state database.
Other things to keep in mind when evaluating the cost of MOSPF's routing calculation are:
One other factor to be considered in MOSPF scaling is how often cache entries need to be recalculated, as a result of a network topology change. The rules for MOSPF cache maintenance are explained in Section 13 of [MOSPF]. Note that the further away the topology change happens from the calculating router, the fewer cache entries need to be recalculated. For example, if an external route changes, many fewer cache entries need to be purged as compared to a change in a MOSPF domain's internal link. For scaling purposes, this is exactly the desired behavior. Note that "OSPF protocol analysis" ([RFC 1245]) bears this out when it shows that changes in external routes (on the order of once a minute for the networks surveyed) are much more frequent than internal changes (between 15 and 50 minutes for the networks surveyed).
The following are known difficulties with the MOSPF protocol:
This concern does not apply to regular IP hosts (i.e., those that are not MOSPF routers).
In the future, it is expected that the following work will be done on the MOSPF protocol:
[Bharath-Kumar] Bharath-Kumar, K., and J. Jaffe, "Routing to multiple destinations in Computer Networks", IEEE Transactions on Communications, COM-31, March 1983.
[Deering] Deering, S., "Multicast Routing in Internetworks and Extended LANs", SIGCOMM Summer 1988 Proceedings, August 1988. [Deering2] Deering, S., "Multicast Routing in a Datagram Internetwork", Stanford Technical Report STAN-CS-92-1415, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, December 1991. [OSPF] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 1583, Proteon, Inc., March 1994. [OSPF MIB] Baker F., and R. Coltun, "OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base", RFC 1253, ACC, Computer Science Center, August 1991. [MOSPF] Moy, J., "Multicast Extensions to OSPF", RFC 1584, Proteon, Inc., March 1994. [RFC 1075] Waitzman, D., Partridge, C. and S. Deering, "Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol", RFC 1075, BBN STC, Stanford University, November 1988. [RFC 1112] Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting", Stanford University, RFC 1112, May 1988. [RFC 1209] Piscitello, D., and J. Lawrence, "Transmission of IP Datagrams over the SMDS Service", RFC 1209, Bell Communications Research, March 1991. [RFC 1245] Moy, J., Editor, "OSPF Protocol Analysis", RFC 1245, Proteon, Inc., July 1991. [RFC 1246] Moy, J., Editor, "Experience with the OSPF Protocol", RFC 1245, Proteon, Inc., July 1991. [RFC 1264] Hinden, R., "Internet Routing Protocol Standardization Criteria", RFC 1264, BBN, October 1991.
[RFC 1390] Katz, D., "Transmission of IP and ARP over FDDI Networks", RFC 1390, cisco Systems, Inc., January 1993. [RFC 1354] Baker, F., "IP Forwarding Table MIB", RFC 1354, ACC, July 1992.
Security issues are not discussed in this memo, tho see Section 2.
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